By Norman Kemp Smith
Of all of the significant philosophical works, Kant's Critique of natural cause is among the so much profitable, but essentially the most tough. Norman Kemp Smith's remark elucidates not just textural questions and minor concerns, but additionally the relevant difficulties which come up, he contends, from the conflicting developments of Kant's personal pondering. Kemp Smith's observation remains to be well-known with Kant students, and it really is being reissued right here with a brand new creation by way of Sebastian Gardner to set it in its modern context.
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Extra info for A Commentary to Kant’s ‘Critique of Pure Reason’
Below, Appe ndix B, p. 583 ff. THE NATURE OF THE A PRiORI xli The general th esis, that th e universal and n ecessary ele me nts in experience constitu te its form, Kant specifies in the follo wing determinate manner. The form is fixed for all expe rience, that is to say, it is one and the sam e in each and every experie nce, however simple o r h owever co mplex. It is to be detected in consciousness of duratio n no less than in conscio usness of object s or in conscio usne ss of self. For, as Kant argues, consciousness of dura tion involves the capaci ty to di stinguish be tween subjective and ob jective su ccession, and likewise in volves recog- ni tion!
The a priori, t hen, is merely relat ional, without in he ren t conten t; it is synt hetic, and therefore incapable of independen t or metaph ysical proof; it is relative to an experience whic h is on ly capable of yield ing appearan ces. The a priori is as strict ly fact ual as the ex perienc e wh ich it co nditions . Even in th e field of morality Kant held fast to th is conv iction. Morality, no less than knowledge, presup poses a priori principles. These, however, are never self-evid ent, and can not be esta blished by an y appeal to intu ition.
To be a form of awareness t hat involves relat io nal cetegor tes anti universal co ncepts. J As we have noted (above, pp. xxvt-xxvnj. it was Hume's insiste nce upon the synt hetic, no n-self-evident character of t he causal axiom t hat awakened Kant from his dogmatic slumbe r. Cf. below, pp. , 593 ft. xlii INTRO DUCfION As tileprinciples which lie at the basis of ourknowledge are synthetic, they have no intrinsic necessity, and cannot possess the absolute authority ascribed to them by the rationalists.