By Richard Black, Godfried Engbersen, Marek Okólski, Cristina Pantîru
A Continent relocating West? argues that the conceptualization of migration as a one-way or long term procedure is turning into more and more huge of the mark. fairly, east-west exertions migration in Europe, in universal maybe with different flows in and from different elements of the realm, is assorted, fluid, and prompted by means of the dynamics of neighborhood and sector-specific hard work markets and migration-related political rules. The papers during this publication give a contribution to serious knowing of the east-west migration in the ecu Union after the 2004 growth, from the recent to the outdated member states.
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Extra resources for A Continent Moving West?: EU Enlargement and Labour Migration from Central and Eastern Europe
Push and pull factors at macro level As noted in chapter 2, an overwhelming figure of 92 per cent of the males interviewed in the PMO study was working in the construction sector in the Oslo area. 1 52 NAPIERAŁA AND TREVENA It is therefore clearly visible that the current migration wave of Poles to Norway is indeed demand-driven, as the need for workers in the Norwegian construction sector is so strong that, besides a qualified workforce, it attracts considerable numbers of workers with no appropriate vocational background and/or work experience.
2 Employer affiliation and legal status (%, n=289) 9% Norwegian company: Legal Polish company: Legal 18% Self-employed: Legal 48% Norwegian company: Illegal or grey area Polish company: Illegal or grey area 8% Self-employed: Illegal or grey area 4% 14% Source: PMO Survey 35 WORKING CONDITIONS 2005), but there is much to indicate that both – and especially in combination – have received a boost after EU enlargement. The terms of employment vary significantly between the different categories of workers.
Some of them have some kind of employment relation to a Polish or Norwegian company, but it is difficult to assess if these are regular firms or informal middlemen and recruiters. The majority are self-employed, selling their services to different private clients. Traditionally, cleaning work in Norway, both in the regular and irregular labour market, has been organised as 40 FRIBERG part-time work (Skilbrei 2003). Unlike the male construction workers who usually have long working hours, Polish women in the cleaning sector are often under-employed.