By Frances W. Zweifel
Read Online or Download A Handbook of Biological Illustration PDF
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Additional info for A Handbook of Biological Illustration
It is possible to give prominence to particular features by the use of certain tcchniques and thus to capture attention without distortion. 0 or more subjects, emphasize differences not through exaggeration but through accentuation, by darkening lines in critical areas and by using shading and highlights that throw these areas into relief. cs three purposes: this is a corrirnon positio~iof the actual light source ~ v h e none is comparing a specimen with an illustration; there appears to be a conlrnon light source for several illustrations that may be grouped together on one plate; and it is easier to compare drawings by different artists if the light source appears the same in all drawings.
Some transparent grounds, such as acetate and polyester films, may ~ i c kup the sketch in mirror image on the back. To prevent this, you may need to spray the preliminary drawing with fixative before yo11 begin to tracc it; or makc a photocopy of the sketch and trace that. If the sketch must be transferred to an opaque ground, you can choose from several transfer methods. One of the best is the doubletransfer method, which produces a copy exactly like the original. The original drawing must be done with a pencil soft and dark enough to allow two transfers-B or HB usually will do.
But though the reducing lens will give some idea of the final reduced illustration, keep in mind that the printing process tends to make lines somewhat thicker and more closely spaced than the view through the lens suggests. For this reason, draw in a slightly more open manner than you actually desire for the printed result-place lines and dots farther apart and draw shadows not quite so dark in the original as you may want them to appear. An alternative method of determining whether an illustration will reduce satisfactorily is to reduce it on an office copying machine.