By Professor Dr. med. Wulf-Dirk Bussmann (auth.)
Withering confirmed 2 hundred years in the past within the 12 months 1784 that "drop sy" should be effectively taken care of with foxglove extracts. This dis covery finally ended in the scientifically dependent therapy of center failure with chemically outlined digitalis glycosides. In Germany, quite, the usefulness of this improvement used to be tremendously exagger ated and infrequently ended in the indiscrimate use of digitalis for pa tients with coronary artery illness and its problems. this day, this kind of drug intervention is used extra sparingly. even as, different healing options have been brought, really that of drug-induced diuresis and the idea that of vasodilation. This e-book is the results of a scientific examine of varied therapeu tic techniques for the administration of middle failure and contains medical, experimental and theoretical features. For greater than a de cade, numerous healing modalities were clinically evaluated within the environment of acute center failure controlled within the extensive care unit in addition to continual middle failure for inpatient and outpatient remedy. adventure has proven that during yes medical occasions, particu larly the administration of acute illness, particular, person drug in tervention is needed and relies at the underlying etiology for middle failure. notwithstanding, in persistent middle failure, long term luck can simply be accomplished via the rational blend of remedy mo dalities. the current textual content is aimed toward offering the clinically and scientif ically orientated health care professional with the pathophysiologic and pharmaco common sense history essential to position into standpoint the healing efforts for the administration of center failure.
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Additional resources for Acute and Chronic Heart Failure: Diagnosis and Therapy
Attenuation ofAction with Long- Term Treatment A special problem in the treatment of heart failure with vasodilators is the frequently observed attenuation of effect after long-term administration. Nitroglycerin can acutely reduce left ventricular filling pressure by 40 to 50 percent. However, with chronic oral nitrate administration, only a minor reduction of filling pressure is demonstrable. On the other hand, during long-term therapy with nitrate, nitroglycerin always exerts this acute effect.
Changes in venous capacitance act predominantly on venous pressure. This results in a decrease of right and left ventricular filling pressure while the cardiac volume flow is usually unaffected. Factors which lead to a decrease in "venous return" and subsequently diminished cardiac output are a primarily low filling pressure or administration of a venous vasodilator in pre-existing hypovolemia. 29 Hemodynamic Effects ofVenodilation o Rest 50 0 Elevation of legs t::,. 73 m2 Fig. 20. Influence of changes in filling pressure on left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) in patients with severe coronary artery disease.
The venous vasodilating effect of nitroglycerin for example, can be impressively demonstrated with a transducer which is placed in the femoral vein and responds to diameter changes. The venous pooling effect is widespread and is particularly active in the splanchnic bed. The portal vein diameter is increased by 27 percent under the influence of nitroglycerin, the mesenteric vein diameter by 12 percent, and that of the splenic vein by 23 percent (Kober and Strohm 1982). The extent of dilation reflects the immense pooling capacity of this vascular region.