By Alekseï Nikolaevitch Tolstoï
Peu après los angeles Première Guerre mondiale, l'ingénieur Loss se lance dans l. a. building d'une fusée pour rejoindre l. a. planète Mars. Mais personne ne veut l'accompagner dans ce voyage périlleux, à l'exception d'un aventurier, un ancien soldat de l'Armée rouge, Goussev. Arrivés sur Mars, ils y découvrent une civilisation millénaire, fondée par les rescapés de l'Atlantide où le luxe féodal de l. a. caste des gouvernants est le fruit du travail de mornes foules d'ouvriers...
Réflexion sur los angeles révolution, le progrès, les risks de los angeles décadence de los angeles civilisation, Aélita (1923) est considéré comme le prime chef-d'oeuvre de l. a. science-fiction soviétique. Mais le roman de Tolstoï est avant tout un grand livre d'aventures, dans l'esprit des oeuvres de H.G. Wells, Jack London, Burroughs ou Brioussov. Les légendes de l'Atlantide, les épopées des Hommes du Ciel, les scènes d'amour et de strive against, les envolées mystiques de Loss, l'intelligence prosaïque et les réparties comiques de Goussev - un personnage classique du skaz du XIXe siècle -, les descriptions d'un monde inconnu et mystérieux, tout cela fait d'Aélita un roman exaltant.
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Extra resources for Aelita
Yet there was a point beyond which the Monarchy seemed unable or even unwilling to go in modernising its diverse realms. Despite cameralist reforms there was little large-scale industry, agriculture remained primitive and the revenue base problematic. The Habsburgs themselves accepted the decentralised structure of the Monarchy. Charles VI is famous for spending much of his reign negotiating the Pragmatic Sanction, a recognition of his daughter’s right to succeed him, with each of the diets, in tacit recognition of their separate status.
For the next two and a half centuries the eastern Slavs lived under Mongol domination, a period which saw the emergence of Russian, White Russian and Ukrainian as separate languages. In the fifteenth century the Principality of Muscovy, centred on Moscow, struggled free of the Mongol yoke and by 1584 had expanded north to the Arctic Ocean, east into Siberia and south-east as far as the Caspian Sea. In the seventeenth century, the tsars of the Romanov dynasty began to make inroads into the territory of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to the west; this included most of what is today Belarus and the area of the Ukraine east of the Dnieper.
Ruled from the thirteenth century by the family of Habsburg, who also held the elective dignity of Holy Roman Emperor almost continuously from the fifteenth century, Austria became the nucleus of a vast agglomeration of principalities and kingdoms, most acquired through dynastic alliance rather than war. The Habsburg realm embraced the kingdoms of Hungary (including Croatia) and Bohemia and was a classic case of imperial ‘overstretch’, with territories and pretensions to hegemony in the Netherlands, Germany and Italy, as well as an uneasy relationship with its East European neighbours.