By John Reader
Drawing on decades of African event, John Reader has written a e-book of startling grandeur and scope that recreates the nice landscape of African heritage, from the primeval cataclysms that shaped the continent to the political upheavals dealing with a lot of the continent this present day. Reader tells the intense tale of humankind's edition to the ferocious stumbling blocks of wooded area, river and wilderness, and to the specter of debilitating parasites, micro organism and viruses unrivaled in different places on the planet. He additionally exhibits how the world's richest collection of animals and crops has helped - or hindered - human growth in Africa.
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Additional resources for Africa: A Biography of the Continent
Little African urban infrastructure is insured by comparison with other parts of the world. By contrast, small everyday events are the main cause of premature death and serious injury (and in epidemiological terms, in aggregate, a large reduction of disability adjusted life years – DALYs). g. 10 or more killed, 100 or more seriously injured, need for external assistance) Can be catastrophic for particular places and times for most low- and middleincome nations, but generally a low overall contribution to premature death and serious injury Frequent (often seasonal) 3–9 persons killed, 10 or more injured Total impact An integrated framework incorporating risk from disasters and ‘non-disaster’ events Probably a significant and considerably underestimated contribution to premature death and serious illness or injury VERY LARGE IMPACT FOR CITY LOW FREQUENCY Source: Bull-Kamanga et al (2003) 1–2 persons killed, 1–9 injured In most African urban areas, these remain the main cause of premature death and serious injury SMALL IMPACT FOR CITY CONTINUUM OF RISK VERY HIGH FREQUENCY 34 Urbanization and Disaster Risk Reduction in Africa little political fallout on the city administration.
A. (2001) ‘Structural adjustment and the contemporary subSaharan African city’, Area, vol 33, no 1, pp18–26 Chambers, R. (1989) ‘Editorial introduction: Vulnerability, coping and policy’, IDS Bulletin , vol 20, no 2, pp1–7 Christie, F. and Hanlon, J. org/ international/news/ivory-coast-toxic-dumping/toxic-waste-in-abidjan-green accessed 29 July 2008 Grimes, B. F. , Reid, H. and Satterthwaite, D. , Land, J. and Wisner, B. html accessed 29 July 2008 Kohler, G. and Chaves, E. J. (eds) (2003) Globalization: Critical Perspectives, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, New York Lewis, J.
In North Africa, Algeria’s coast has the highest levels of earthquake hazard – as discussed in the AURAN case study in this volume. Volcanic eruptions may threaten cities. There are quiescent and even active volcanoes ranging from Ethiopia, through Kenya and Tanzania, and into Malawi. In 2002 Goma, Republic of Congo, a city of 500,000 people and major trading centre, was split in two by fast-flowing lava from Mount Nyiragongo. Because the city was in the hands of an insurgent army at the time, there was no state or municipal administration to provide warning and to supervise evacuation (Wisner, 2002).