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See Daniel C. O. ' , Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 21 (December 1983) no. 4, p. 615. Marian E. Bond, 'Agricultural Responses to Prices in Sub-Saharan African Countries', IMF Staff Papers, vol. 30 (December 1983) no . 4, pp. 710-11. Ibid. p. 724. Shapiro, 'The Limits of Policy Reform'. 5. 17). Even these figures are somewhat optimistic in that they assume a perfect market in crop purchasing in order that the full amount of the price increase will actually be passed on to producers. In the Ivory Coast it is estimated that up to 50 per cent of the official price offered by marketing boards is absorbed by middlemen.
No African country has more self-consciously pursued a selfreliant strategy than Tanzania. Over the years since the Arusha Declaration, its government has made errors, to be sure - and Julius Nyerere has not been afraid to admit them - but there is little reason to believe that other African countries pursuing the same strategy would have been significantly more successful. Biersteker's chapter shows the vulnerability of countries at Tanzania's level of development to natural disasters and unfavourable external trends.
The role of the state in the NICs does not in itself address the question of whether the state in most SSA countries is overextended . Critics of the Bank's recommendations in AD have alleged that it has advocated a dismantling of public sector involvement in productive and distributive activities. Again, the forthright manner in which the Bank presented its recommendations in AD undoubtedly contributed to this over-reaction. On p. 5, for instance, the Bank asserts that, 'It is now widely evident that the public sector is overextended, given the present scarcities of financial resources, skilled manpower, and organizational capacity.