By George T Tsao; Michael C Flickinger; Robert K Finn
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Extra resources for Annual reports on fermentation processes Volume 6
9 containing 800 2600 mgs COD per liter was continuously delivered to the reactor at residence times of 2-5 hours, the COD was reduced by 70 - 88%. Approximately 45% of the total carbon delivered to the system was converted to methane. The gas delivered from the system contained greater than 90% methane with less than 5% carbon dioxide, high BTU gas. The efficient performance of this system is due to: 1) the optimized pore dimensions for both high cell accumulation and prevention of washout; 2) the more complete conversion of carbon dioxide due to the elevation of pH to above 8 and the pressurization of the reactor by inserting a check valve in the effluent stream; and 3) the gas-fluid interface maximization for removal of methane by the horizonal assembly of the anaerobic stage and maintaining the level of about 50% fluid depth.
Almost without exception significant levels of antibiotics have been required in large-scale systems to maintain sterility. These antibiotics not only can affect the growth of the vertebrate cells and products produced, but they also make detection of chronic, low level contaminants extremely difficult. Reduction and elimination of dependence upon antibiotics should be a primary goal for design of new systems for vertebrate cell culture. B. Anchorage-Dependent Growth Systems As compared to cells that grow suspended freely in a liquid medium, anchorage-dependent cells present much more difficult problems for scale-up.
One of the major production units for our large-scale cell culture production is a 100-liter vibromixer agitated suspension growth vessel (30,32). It was designed for operation without antibiotics under the following criteria: (a) vessels should be simple in construction with absolute static seals, (b) vessels should be autoclavable so that both inside and outside of vessels, particularly at connectors and sampling ports, conditions were reached and sufficiently maintained to kill bacterial spores, (c) vessels should be portable to allow all connections for transfer of medium, inoculation and harvest to be made inside a laminar flow hood, (d) systems developed for in-place sampling of vessels must maintain absolute sterility.