By Irving M. Shapiro, Makarand V. Risbud
The intervertebral disc is a fancy constitution that separates opposing vertebrae, allows quite a lot of movement, and incorporates excessive biomechanical forces. Disc degeneration ends up in a lack of functionality and is usually linked to excruciating pain.
Written by way of best scientists and clinicians, the 1st a part of the ebook presents a evaluate of the elemental biology of the disc in well-being and illness. the second one half considers suggestions to mitigate the results of disc degeneration and discusses the potential for engineering substitute tissues. the ultimate part is dedicated to methods to version basic improvement and elucidate the pathogenesis of degenerative disc illness utilizing animal, organ and phone tradition thoughts.
The e-book bridges the space among the fundamental and medical sciences; the objective viewers comprises easy scientists, orthopaedists and neurologists, whereas whilst attractive to the wishes of graduate scholars, clinical scholars, interns and fellows.
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Extra resources for The Intervertebral Disc: Molecular and Structural Studies of the Disc in Health and Disease
1007/978-3-7091-1535-0_3, © Springer-Verlag Wien 2014 Overview Intervertebral discs are derived from embryonic structures called the sclerotome and notochord (Paavola et al. 1980; Theiler 1988; Rufai et al. 1995). The nucleus pulposus, the cushioning core of the mature intervertebral disc, is derived from the notochord, while the annulus fibrosus, which provides the structural properties of the disc, is derived from sclerotome (Christ et al. 2004, 2007; Christ and Scaal 2008). The sclerotome is derived from the somites, transient structures that determine the segmented nature of the embryo.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 24(23):2449–2455 Guerin HA, Elliott DM (2006a) Degeneration affects the fiber reorientation of human annulus fibrosus under tensile load. J Biomech 39(8):1410–1418 Guerin HA, Elliott DM (2006b) Structure and properties of soft tissues in the spine. In: Kurtz SM, Edidin AA (eds) SPINE: technology handbook. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam/Boston Guerin HL, Elliott DM (2007) Quantifying the contributions of structure to annulus fibrosus mechanical function using a nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic model.
2010). Specifically, limacon-shaped discs had a defined posterolateral herniation pathway, whereas oval-shaped discs had a more diffuse herniation pathway. 2 Endplate Fracture Another mechanically driven injury is the fracture of the vertebral endplate. The endplate is the cortical bone on the superior and inferior (cranial and caudal sides, respectively) aspects of the vertebral body. On one side, the vertebral endplate is in contact with the intervertebral disc through the cartilaginous endplate; on the other side, it is supported by the trabecular bone inside the vertebral body.